An alliance for the alleviation of suffering in the world
COLLECTING AND CLASSIFYING IN ALGONOMY
An important work in the systematic study of suffering consists in collecting facts, ideas, documents, and in classifying them methodically for convenient retrieval and handling. Lists as exhaustive as possible should be set up concerning kinds of suffering, people or animals who suffer, causes of suffering, people and organizations who cause suffering, solutions or strategies relative to suffering, people and organizations who contribute to stop or prevent excessive suffering, documents interesting the systematic study of suffering, and many other topics. All those inventories, most of them without precedent, are needed to give a wider and more precise mapping of the algonomic field. This should provide better information on what is occurring and what should be done. It should make navigation easier through the abundance, the vastitude and the complexity of the subject. Each fact, each idea, each document has its importance. The Cartesian method of exhaustive enumerations has proven to be very profitable in many modern disciplines, and algonomy, in its turn, should dare to undertake inventories that could involve millions of elements.
This document presents a continuously updated outline that could be used as a framework for creating a discipline or field of study which is tentatively called algonomy (see Introduction to Algonomy), and which would consist in a body of theoretical and practical knowledge concerning suffering.
The algonomic field may be organized in six main parts, as follows.
20-Fundamental algonomy deals with the description, analysis, and measurement of suffering.
40-Algogenic algonomy is concerned with factors or agents that contribute to the production of suffering (algogenic factors).
50- Applied algonomy is concerned with application of algonomic knowledge to action about suffering.
60- Antalgic algonomy is concerned with factors or agents that go against the production of suffering (antalgic factors).
80-Methodological algonomy is concerned with algonomy as a discipline.
95- General algonomy deals with matters that belong to no other specific part of the discipline.
Note that numbers preceding titles of sections in this document are for convenience. Their meaning is explained in the Methodological Classification Table for Algonomy.
Fundamental algonomydeals with the description, analysis, and measurement of suffering. The following sections are proposed.
20/11- Definition of Suffering
20/11/11- Defining Unpleasantness, Pain, Suffering and other such phenomena
20/12- Conceptions Regarding the Nature of Suffering
20/12/35- Critical Review of Conceptions Regarding the Nature of Suffering
20/20- Analytical Study of Suffering —
20/22- Analytical Study of Pain — Pain is defined by the the International Association for the Study of Pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage". The present section will eventually offer a summary of what is known in the field of pain research and management in relation with suffering.
20/26- Analytical Study of Mental Suffering — There exists no specialty, within psychology or elsewhere, which deals specifically with psychological or mental suffering, as opposed to physical or bodily pain. Along with analytical study of suffering in general (panalgology?) and along with analytical study of pain (algology or histalgology?), it is proposed here to create new analytical disciplines dealing with mental suffering (psychalgology?), cognitive suffering (gnosalgology?), emotional suffering (thymalgology?), social suffering (socialgology?), or other such kinds of suffering.
20/72- Classification of Suffering
20/72/75- Classification Table for Suffering
20/73- Classification of Individuals Affected by Suffering
20/75- Inventories of Suffering Cases
20/76- Inventories of Individuals Affected by Suffering
20/90- Algometry (Measurement of Suffering)
Algogenic algonomy is concerned with factors or agents that contribute to the production of suffering (algogenic factors).The following sections are proposed.
40/05- Study of Contextual Data Relevant to Algogenic Factors
40/10- Descriptive Study of Algogenic Factors
40/30- Critical Study of Algogenic Factors
40/40- Study of Theories on Causes of Suffering
40/70- Classification in Algogenic Algonomy
40/75- Inventories in Algogenic Algonomy
40/76- Inventories of Persons who Contribute to the Production of Suffering
Applied algonomy is concerned with application of algonomic knowledge to action about suffering. The following document, as an instance of an early tentative effort, proposes an algonomic program of security concerning suffering: Answers to the Echoing Green Questionnaire (2004).
Antalgic algonomy is concerned with factors or agents that go against the production of suffering (antalgic factors). The following sections are proposed. Some subsections are given as examples : a complete listing may be developed on the basis of theClassification Table for Antalgic Factors.
60/05- Study of Contextual Data Relevant to Antalgic Factors
60/10- Descriptive Study of Antalgic Factors
60/15- Descriptive Review of Antalgic Factors
60/15/20- Descriptive Review of Health Care
60/15/20/52- Descriptive Review of Psychopharmacology
60/30- Critical Study of Antalgic Factors
60/30/20- Critical Study of Antalgic Factors in Law
60/30/20/33- Critical Study of Prisons
60/60- Developmental Study of Antalgic Factors
60/60/50- Developmental Study of Antalgic Strategies
60/60/50/05- Developmental Study of Universal Antalgic Strategies — A universal antalgic strategy is defined here as a comprehensive plan of action that seeks to reduce or stop most, or even all, sufferings. More largely, a universal algonomic strategy can be defined as a comprehensive plan of action that seeks to control most, or even all, sufferings. Many wide-ranging doctrines, be they religious, philosophical or political, have a universal strategy to offer with respect to suffering. Sometimes it seems that there are as many universal strategies as there are individual strategists! As a disciplinary field, algonomy could be expected to sum up all of its knowledge and wisdom within one universal strategy in particular …but it cannot, because every strategy depends on who wants what, why, when, where, etc. Instead, algonomy deals with description, analysis, criticism, and theoretical or technical development of various universal strategies.
60/70- Classification in Antalgic Algonomy
60/75- Inventories in Antalgic Algonomy
Methodological algonomy is concerned with algonomy as a discipline.The following sections are proposed.
80/00- Introduction to Algonomy
80/01- Philosophy of Algonomy
80/05- Contextual Data Relevant to Algonomy as a Disciplinary Field
80/30- Epistemology (Justification and Criticism) of Algonomy
80/40- History of Algonomy
80/60- Research and Development Programs
80/70- Classification in Algonomy
80/70/05- Outline for an Algonomy
80/75- Documentary Resources
80/75/76- Bibliography on Suffering
80/75/77- Links on Suffering
80/76- Workforce Resources
80/76/05- List of Workforce Resources
80/77- Persons and Organizations Concerned with Matters Closely Related to Algonomy —There are works outside of algonomy that are highly relevant to the systematic study of suffering. The main ones are listed here.
Panetics. In 1986,
Ralph Siu (1917-1998) proposed a new
discipline that he called panetics, the
study of the infliction of suffering. The
International Society for Panetics (ISP)
was created in 1991. It is not very active
presently. As noted above, some pages can be
found on the present website concerning
Quantification Research about Suffering at
Abolitionism. In 1995,
David Pearce wrote The
Hedonistic Imperative, a manifesto that
expounds the philosophical bases for
undertaking a global engineering project in
order to abolish the biological substrates
of suffering. A practical step has been
taken by setting up
an enterprise dedicated to that project. No
advance seems to have taken place since a
Social Suffering Studies.
Pain Research and Pain
John Bonica (1917-1994) was a pioneer of
physical pain science and a founder of the
International Association for the Study of
Pain (IASP). Pain science grew quickly
during the nineteen-seventies. Many sections of
can benefit from pain science knowledge about
physical suffering, its nature, its causes,
its remedies. Reciprocally, pain science could
benefit from algonomy, for instance by
redefining pain and its management in a
conceptual continuum with the definition and
the management of suffering.
Encyclopedia of World
Anthony Judge is director of
Communications and Research at the
International Associations, and he is
the main author of the
Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human
Potential. This monumental work of
reference is produced since the seventies.
It presents systematically, as a whole set
and with details, thousands of world
problems and remedies, as they appear in the
literature of international organizations.
The Encyclopedia could serve as a
cornerstone for most inventories in various
parts of algonomy. Also, various
introductory texts in that work offer highly
interesting views for theoretical
developments. One fact highlights the mutual
relevance of the Encyclopedia and the
systematic study of suffering : according to
what can be read on page 56 of the first
volume (1991 edition), pain or suffering is
"the most fundamental entry common to the
core parts" of the Encyclopedia.
Happiness Studies and
Others. Religion, healthcare, medicine, public health, social services, social security, animal welfare, charity, philanthropy, human rights, disaster relief, insurance, public security...
80/80- Methodology of Algonomy— Methodology may be defined as the study of how research does or should proceed in a discipline (it must not be mistaken here for methodology defined as a set of methods followed in a discipline).
80/88- Methods in Algonomy — A method may be defined as a set of formalized instructions that are conformed to scientific or academic requirements and that point out what to do for dealing in a certain way with certain matters. In algonomy, numerous methods are borrowed from other disciplines, but some must be invented or adapted to suit the specific needs of the new specialty. These new methods in particular are to be reported in this section.
General algonomy deals with matters that belong to no other specific part of the discipline. The following sections are proposed. Eventually, a summary under each section will be offered on this website.
95/XX- Suffering and History
95/XX- Suffering and Philosophy
95/XX- Suffering and Religion
95/XX- Suffering and Ethics
95/XX- Suffering and Law
95/XX- Suffering and Sociology
95/XX- Suffering and Economics
95/XX- Suffering and Politics
95/XX- Suffering and Education
95/XX- Suffering and Arts
95/XX- Suffering and the Media
This Outline for an Algonomy is to be developed as algonomy progresses.
See also the table summary in The Systematic Approach to Suffering, for entries that might be integrated here.
A first version of this document appeared on a previous website on 2000/04/16.
(The following text is under construction)
20/72/75/xx- Health problems — Classification of illnesses, of psychological problems… Sexual problems, love problems, suicide, addiction (drug, tobacco, alcohol), euthanasia, bereavement, accidents, chronic pain, AIDS… Lack of health services, of pharmacological drugs, of personal hygiene… Malnutrition, faulty diets…
20/72/75/xx- Social problems — Poverty, unemployment, illness, disability, toxicomania or addiction, homelessness, housing, illiteracy, prostitution, criminality, abortion, disempowerment, acculturation, family planning, budgeting, child abuse, battered women, old age, overpopulation, displacement of refugees, dicrimination (race, âge, sexe, orientation sexuelle, religion, statut social, handicap, maladie...), street gangs, school drop-out, mortalité infantile…
20/72/75/xx- Economic problems — Lack of production or distribution of goods and services, more specifically of that part of them without which there would be more suffering (be it food, water, fuel, housing, clothing, industrial supplies, educational services, telecommunications, transportation, health services, political management, etc.). Abusive appropriations, abusive exploitation, profiteering, slavery… Underdevelopment. Lack of social security, of private insurance… Hunger, water-related problems,
20/72/75/xx- Armed conflict — Army, military, civil war, war
20/72/75/xx- Crimes and human rights violation
20/72/75/xx- Disasters, accidents, fire, apocalypse or end of the world,
20/72/75/xx- Animal suffering —
20/72/75/xx- Environmental problems —
20/72/75/xx- Death-related problems (fear of death, suicide, bereavement, euthanasia, homicide…)
20/72/75/xx- Spiritual problems. Sin. Fear of damnation. Aspiration to salvation.
20/72/75/95/09- Combined sets of suffering — The set of all sufferings. Multicategorical sets.
growing sufferings, diminishing, structural, ponctuels, simple vs complex, worst (en n. de viks, en algogénie, en gravité de s…), collection of quotes in the form of "THE most widespread suffering is …".
(from EWP h945 metapathology) alienation, anomie, anhedonia, loss of zest in life, meaninglessness, inability to enjoy, indifference, boredom, ennui, worthlessness of life, existential vacuum, noogenic neurosis, philosophical crisis, apathy, resignation, fatalism, valuelessness, desacralization of life, spiritual illnesses and crises, axiological depression, death wishes, sense of being useless or unwanted, hopelessness, despair, anguish, cynicism, and aimlessness.
sexual frustration, sexual problems, old age problems, burn-out, ugliness, déchéance, inertia, tiredness, spleen, ignorance, illetteracy, loneliness, religious dependency, superstition, fear of crime, of illness, of suffering, of pain, of death, of powerlessness, of painful death, of horrible death, of premature death, fear of tomorow, of old age want, fear of boss, of government, of proprietary, unrest, anguish, insecurity, shyness, lack of self-confidence, lack of confidence in others, social tension, psychological tension, ostracism, fanatics, lack of independence, of autonomy, (from old age, from illness, from a chronic condition, from handicap...), dependency to comfort, emotional dependence to a closed group (family, gang, sect, work place…), coward, irresponsible, omission to help, lack of courage, civil disobedience, justified infraction, lack of comfort, lack of longevity, lack of superiority, of success, of dominance, of aggression, of competence, lack of social approbation, of acknowledgement, of good reputation, of higher social rank, of others' esteem, of respect, of love, lack of posterity lack of pleasure, of happiness, of joy, of riches, of gratification, lack of peak experience, of sublime, of spiritual realization, lack of belonging, lack of roots, lack of self-realization, of amelioration, of going upward, of getting, better off, lack of contributing to society, to family, etc., lack of action, of exercise, of doing, unrooting, rejection, being not desired, being cheated, conditioned, exploited, manipulated, culpability, remorse, shame, love peine, heartbreak, separation, loss of affection, treason…, loss of work, status, money, disarray, sadness, discontent, lack of love for others, abrutissement, avilissement,
(see Siu 1998, vol III, suffering )
1. Santé. Hygiène. Médecine. Psychiatrie. Psychothérapie.
Cardiologie, cancérologie, traumatologie, toxicologie (drogues,
tabac, alcool), etc.
2. Recherche sur la douleur. Traitement de la douleur.
3. Bienfaisance, philanthropie, humanitarisme.
4. Tiers-monde. Sous-développement. Aide internationale. Faim. Ressources en eau. Surpopulation.
5. Pacifisme, polémologie, guerre, militarisme.
6. Problèmes sociaux. Droits de la personne, discrimination (race, âge, sexe, orientation sexuelle, religion, statut social, handicap, maladie...). Torture. Réfugiés.
7. Problèmes économiques. Pauvreté. Chômage. Maldistribution de la richesse. Exploitation des travailleurs.
8. Criminologie. Pénologie.
9. Problèmes spirituels. Péché. Aspirations au salut.
10. Problèmes relatifs à la mort. Deuil. Suicidologie.
11. Le problème de la fin du monde.
12. Secours d'urgence en cas de catastrophe. Protection civile.
13. Problèmes sexologiques.
14. Protection des animaux.
15. Problèmes écologiques, pollution.
maux, douleur, souffrance, mal, malheur, problème, besoin, etc.
souffrance excessive, extrême, hautement aversive,
souffrance utile, inutile, noble, ignoble,
registre des cas de souf. excess.
les maux considérés comme primordiaux; maux en diminution; maux en croissance; répartition géographique; répartition sociologique; catégories de maux.
Le mot souffrance (algos
en grec ancien) est utilisé ici pour désigner tout fait de
conscience désagréable : douleur physique,
détresse, désespoir, angoisse, anxiété, désarroi, chagrin,
dépression, tristesse, peine, malaise, inconfort,
insatisfaction, mécontentement, dégoût, aversion, exaspération,
rage, haine, hostilité, envie, privation, frustration, peine
d'amour, inquiétude, peur, terreur, horreur, honte, culpabilité,
remors, humiliation, aliénation, ennui, tourment, deuil, malheur...
The word suffering (algos in ancient Greek) is used here to refer to any unpleasant experience : physical pain, distress, despair, anguish, anxiety, dismay, chagrin, depression, sadness, sorrow, grief, malaise, discomfort, dissatisfaction, discontentment, disgust, aversion, exasperation, rage, hatred, hostility, envy, privation, frustration, heartbreak, inquietude, fear, terror, horror, shame, culpability, remorse, humiliation, alienation, boredom, tedium, tourment, bereavement, unhappiness...
Other : pity, cruelty, anger, unkindness, indignation, confusion, weariness, cowardice, distance, complaint, rashness, stress, nervousness, disrespect, constraint, guilt, jealousy, phobia, repentance, resentment, bitterness, disappointment, discouragement, privation, gluttony, greed...
(see EWP, e.g. PA7107 Unpleasantness, and many other entries)
(The following text is under construction)
sufferer, poor, desperate, afflicted, unhappy, needful, wretched, distressed, victim, sick, hungry, bereaved, tortured, refugee,
according to space (geography), time (history), events, social groups, age, sex, race, class or power status,
according to physical, mental, social… pain
actual vs potential, certain vs dubious,
animal (lab, farm, LD50, )
physically handicapped, crippled, amputee, accident victim, car accident victim, sick, arthritic, cancerous, aborted, poor, indigent, hunger, cold, thirst, malnutrition (in middle class, higher class, lower class), discomfort,
toxicomania, alcoholism, inmates, prisoners, tortured, punished,
sinners, vice, faults, egoism, laziness…, mentally handicaped, psychologically ill, schizophren, depressive, traumatic incident, victim of crime, bereaved, suicidal, parent of a dead child, orphan, mourners,
Prostitute, slave, child slave, sexual slave,
Prisoner, mistreated prisoner, tortured,
Siu 1998, vol.III, inflictees
addict, alien, apostate, bastard, beggar, bohemian, bootlicker, braggart, castaway, complainer, coward, criminal, defeatist, dependant, deviant, dissenter, elderly, enemy, extremist, failure, fool, gambler, handicapped, homeless, hostage, imposter, adultress, lackey, laughingstock, leper, liar, libertine, loafer, loser, martyr, mediocre person, minority, misanthrope, miser, mob, neurotic, nihilist, nobody, nonconformist, odd person, prostitute, subordinate
(The following text is under construction)
40/70/75/04- Internal structural factors — Biological, anatomical, physiological, neural, hormonal, and other such factors.
40/70/75/05- External structural factors — Historical, physical, social, economical, cultural, and other such circumstances.
40/70/75/06- Causes of suffering — Direct vs structural. Simple vs complex. Collection of quotes in the form of "THE first or most important cause of suffering is …". Sufferings as causes of suffering. Good things as causes of suffering. growing factors, diminishing, structural, ponctuels, worst (en n. de viks, en algogénie, en gravité de s…), premiers algogènes, algogènes structurels
40/70/75/07- Strategies, tactics, ways for producing suffering —
40/70/75/08- Resources used in algogenic activities — Workforce, money, documents, material…
40/70/75/12- Doctrines — Political doctrines (nazism, fascism, …). Spiritual doctrines (damnation, fakirism, ascetism, penitentism…). Philosophical doctrines (dolorism, prodolorism…).
40/70/75/13- Persons — Famous algogenic agents. Classes of persons (see inflictors)
40/70/75/14- Personal actions —
40/70/75/15- Professions — bourreau, torturers, slave-trader, soldier, army, school of torture, CIA, prison-warden,
40/70/75/17- Organizations — Governmental, nongovernmental, corporate, nonprofit… organizations.
40/70/75/18- Disciplines — Schools of torture.
40/70/75/95- Categories or factors not listed elsewhere —
40/70/75/95/09- Combined sets of factors — The set of all factors. Multicategorical sets.
40/70/75/95/10- Conceptual classes of factors — Activities, action, forces, factors, agency…
40/70/75/95/95- Unintentional algogenic factors — Chance, counterproductivity, side-effects, algogenic effects caused by antalgic factors (by physicians, politicians, policemen, judges, etc.)…
40/70/75/xx- Pro-dolorist activities —
40/70/75/xx- Harming animals —
40/70/75/xx- Harming the environment —
wrong-doers, evil-doers, sadistics, satanists, nazi, fascist, racists, criminals, mafia,
child molestors, abusive exploiters, corporation strategists, anti-eff, structural syanlgic actors, individuals, organizations
Suffering caused by antalgic factors
necessary-useful-unavoidable suffering, unnecessary-useless-avoidable suffering, perverse antalgic agents,
Suffering caused by the pursuit of a truely positive good
Suffering caused by the pursuit of a falsely positive good
From an International Society for Panetics' document :
SECTION 1: The DATA TEAM will gather selected relevant indicators from numerous sources that attempt to measure, on a comparative basis, INFLICTIONS of human suffering among the nations of the world. The indicators will be portrayed in tabular and map formats. GENERAL categories (there will be many sub-categories) of INFLICTION for initial data collection include (but are not limited to):
a. "Natural" (i.e. non-human) inflictions in the year 2000 (i.e. natural disasters, etc.).
b. Business inflictions.
c. Criminal inflictions.
d. Economic inflictions (poverty, unemployment, displacements, etc.)
e. Educational inflictions.
f. Environmental inflictions.
g. Ethnic, racial and gender-based inflictions.
h. Ethical and value conflicts that inflict.
I. Family inflictions (spousal abuse, child abuse,etc.)
i. Governmental and political inflictions (including terrorism).
j. Legal, judicial, police and correctional inflictions.
k. Media (including public relations and advertising) inflictions.
l. Medical and health-related inflictions. m. Military inflictions (war, etc.)
n. Political inflictions.
o. Religious inflictions.
p. Science-related inflictions.
q. Technology-related inflictions.
The following classification is an attempt at establishing a common frame for ordering potentially all factors that go against the production of suffering. Developing such a tool seems important for theoretical and practical purposes.
1 - Sectors
60/70/75/xx- Health care — Medicine : psychiatry, cardiology, cancerology, traumatology, pain science, etc. Psychology : psychotherapy, sexology, suicidology, treatment of addictive behavior, bereavement counseling, etc. Pharmacology. Public health : sanitation, prevention of illnesses and accidents, administration of health services, etc. Alternative health care. Personal hygiene.
60/70/75/xx- Social services — Classified by groups of people for whom they are intended : poor people, old people, parents, children, sick persons, disabled people, drug addicts, homeless people, illiterates, refugees, prostitutes, offenders, ex-inmates, victims of crime, unemployed, too large populations… Classified by kinds of service : birth control, literacy programs, family budgeting, advocacy, support for living (subsistence, housing, clothing, transport, leisure, etc.), protection against child abuse…
60/70/75/xx- Economic security — Production and distribution of goods and services, more specifically of that part of them without which there would be more occurences of suffering (be it food, water, fuel, housing, clothing, industrial supplies, educational services, telecommunications, transportation, health services, political management, etc.). International and national programs against underdevelopment. Social security : old-age pensions, welfare, unemployment insurance, health insurance, child benefit, etc. Private insurance : life, health, fire, accident, theft, etc.
60/70/75/xx- Emergency services — Military and civil defense. Local or international disaster prevention and management. Emergency aid. Security of supplies. Fire departments.
60/70/75/xx- Protection by law — Police, courts, prisons, etc. Criminology, victimology, etc. Human rights. Legislation.
60/70/75/xx- Philanthropic help (humanitarianism, benevolence, charity) —
60/70/75/xx- Protection of animals —
60/70/75/xx- Protection of the environment —
2 - Categories
60/70/75/04- Internal structural factors — Biological, anatomical, physiological, neural, hormonal, and other such factors.
60/70/75/05- External structural factors — Historical, physical, social, economical, cultural, and other such circumstances.
60/70/75/06- Solutions (remedies...) — Direct vs structural. Simple vs complex. Collection of quotes in the form of "THE first or most important solution to the problem of suffering is …".
60/70/75/07- Strategies (tactics…) —
60/70/75/08- Resources used in antalgic activities — Workforce, money, documents, material…
60/70/75/12- Doctrines — Political doctrines (socialism, Marxism, welfarism, activism…). Spiritual doctrines (salvation, charity, penance, Buddhism, fakirism…). Philosophical doctrines (utilitarianism, Stoicism, antidolorism, anti-suffering abolitionism…).
60/70/75/13- Persons — Famous antalgic agents…
60/70/75/14- Personal actions — Self-help or self-healing behaviors, interpersonal care and support, preventive behaviors, support for bereavement...
60/70/75/15- Professions —
60/70/75/17- Organizations — Governmental, nongovernmental, corporate, nonprofit, self-help …organizations.
60/70/75/95- Categories or factors not listed elsewhere —
60/70/75/95/09- Combined sets of factors — The set of all factors. Multicategorical sets.
60/70/75/95/10- Conceptual classes of factors — Activities, action, forces, factors, agency…
60/70/75/95/60- Anti-suffering abolitionist initiatives — Ex. : BLTC Research.
60/70/75/95/69- Annihilation of all sentient beings —
60/70/75/95/75- Inventory undertakings — Ex. : Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential.
60/70/75/95/95- Unintentional antalgic factors — Chance, serendipity, side-effects, antalgic effects caused by algogenic factors…
Note that items above are going to be expanded or rearranged in sub-categories, and that items belonging to more than one category may appear more than once. Note also that factors are listed without judging of their antalgic validity, provided that they are perceived as valid by any group of people. It must be understood that no entity or event is by itself an antalgic factor (for instance, someone being help with money may or may not feel relieved of a suffering, depending on other factors) : it is the causal relationship established by an observer between an entity or event and a suffering being stopped, relieved or prevented that turns the entity or event into an antalgic factor.
METHODOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION TABLE FOR ALGONOMY
maps of the whole
|terms, notions||facts, phenomena|
|psychological entities||hypothesis, induction, deduction, laws|
|80||METHODO-LOGICAL algonomy||design, preparation, meta-considerations||EPISTEMO-LOGY||
|quantitative data, material things||units|
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